MAP

Friday, 12 February 2016

"EARTH - LIKE PLANETS HAVE EARTH - LIKE INTERIORS", February 8, 2016

1.“Will rocky exoplanets orbiting other stars have the same three layers? New research suggests that the answer is yes - they will have interiors very similar to Earth.”.

  2nd OPINION: 

  Because the main source of these elements is supernova blast.  I have already given new hypothesis for the  formation of Solar system on the basis of Dark atom & Dark energy. PULSATION plays important role.

  I ALREADY explained on 24th, July’ 2015 that ATOMIC COMPOSITION & CERTAIN CONDITION also decide the composition heavenly bodies.

  Reference:

  Kindly refer to the SLIDES OF MY ORAL PRESENTATION IN VIETNAM ON 24TH, JULY’ 2015 in an International Science conference on “Planetary System – a synergistic view” [19th- 25th July’ 2015]

  Title : “REGENERATION OF STAR & FORMATION OF SOLAR SYSTEM - Potter Man’s concept



2."The new code also can be applied to smaller, icier worlds like the moons and dwarf planets in the outer solar system. 

  “The model assumes that distant exo-planets have chemical compositions similar to Earth. This is reasonable based on the relevant abundances of key chemical elements like iron, magnesium, silicon, and oxygen in nearby systems.”

  2nd OPINION: 

  Yes, it is true that the composition of all the objects formed by the ejecta of the supernova blast are similar whether it is  planets, moon or asteroid belt or the exo-planet.

  MASS & SIZE of  planets, asteroids, exo-planets etc. are not dependent on their COMPOSITION. But all depend on the surrounding conditions. 

 Composition can also be related to the MASS & SIZE of others like Mother stars, Surrounding stars & nearby heavenly bodies [shielding effects]. 

  I also written the CRITERIA FOR FINDING HABITABLE PLANETS in my Vietnam presentation.

  Reference:

   Kindly refer to the SLIDES OF MY ORAL PRESENTATION IN VIETNAM ON 24TH, JULY’ 2015 in an International Science conference on “Planetary System – a synergistic view” [19th- 25th July’ 2015]

  Title : “REGENERATION OF STAR & FORMATION OF SOLAR SYSTEM - Potter Man’s concept

3.“Howeverplanets forming in more or less metal-rich regions of the galaxy could show different interior structures. The team expects to explore these questions in future research.

  2nd OPINION: 

  It is not a question of research because the planets formed in more or less metal reach region obviously has different composition. But HOW?& WHY? - is the topic of research. It is already explained by me on 24th , July’ 2015 in Vietnam Conference.

  The heavy element comes out first from the supernova is also WRITTEN BY ME ON



Every school kid learns the basic structure of the Earth: a thin outer crust, a thick mantle, and a Mars-sized core. But is this structure universal? Will rocky exoplanets orbiting other stars have the same three layers? New research suggests that the answer is yes - they will have interiors very similar to Earth.
"We wanted to see how Earth-like these rocky planets are. It turns out they are very Earth-like," says lead author Li Zeng of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).
To reach this conclusion Zeng and his co-authors applied a computer model known as the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), which is the standard model for Earth's interior. They adjusted it to accommodate different masses and compositions, and applied it to six known rocky exoplanets with well-measured masses and physical sizes.
They found that the other planets, despite their differences from Earth, all should have a nickel/iron core containing about 30 percent of the planet's mass. In comparison, about a third of the Earth's mass is in its core. The remainder of each planet would be mantle and crust, just as with Earth.
"We've only understood the Earth's structure for the past hundred years. Now we can calculate the structures of planets orbiting other stars, even though we can't visit them," adds Zeng.
The new code also can be applied to smaller, icier worlds like the moons and dwarf planets in the outer solar system. For example, by plugging in the mass and size of Pluto, the team finds that Pluto is about one-third ice (mostly water ice but also ammonia and methane ices).
The model assumes that distant exoplanets have chemical compositions similar to Earth. This is reasonable based on the relevant abundances of key chemical elements like iron, magnesium, silicon, and oxygen in nearby systems. However, planets forming in more or less metal-rich regions of the galaxy could show different interior structures. The team expects to explore these questions in future research.
The paper detailing this work, authored by Li Zeng, Dimitar Sasselov, and Stein Jacobsen (Harvard University), has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal and is available online.
More information: "Mass-Radius Relation for Rocky Planets Based on PREM," Li Zeng, Dimitar Sasselov & Stein Jacobsen (Harvard University), 2016, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal arxiv.org/abs/1512.08827
Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal  

Wednesday, 3 February 2016

WHAT IS DARK ENERGY? February 1, 2016 by Thomas Kitching, Ucl, The Conversation

1.For thousands of years, we have thought we knew what the universe ”.

  2nd OPINION: 

  I have been writing since 2013 that our present knowledge is based on 4-5% stuffs - so we are studying TERRESTIAL SCIENCE . I have been explaining & re-explaining the present science to prove UNIVERSAL SCIENCE on the basis of 100%



2.“… we knew what the universe – and everything in it – was made of: normal matter, the kind that make up the elements of the periodic table.”

  2nd OPINION: 

  Please refer my comment on 29th, June’ 2013

  Is the number of element in Universe are only that- we know? 



3.“Since then, astronomers have begun investing billions of pounds in experiments which aim to find out what this mysterious phenomenon is.”

  2nd OPINION: 

  No need to spend billion on basics.





4.  What they discover is guaranteed to change physics forever..”

  2nd OPINION: 

  Please refer my comments dated 23rd, June’ 2013

   the theory of unified ....' this will redefine many basic concept & assumptions.


  Please refer my abstract dated 17th, Aug’ 2013 for General Relativity & Gravitation under heading "GRAVITY"- a PUSHING FORCE [-a "Layman concept of Unified Dark Energy"]

   I know it is a big claim that I am making, but it is on the basis of some basic theoretical research. It will change our STANDARD MODEL and open new path for exponential growth in research 


  Please refer my comments dated 24th, Jan.’ 2015

   It is just a start of universal science. It may give 2nd opinion on almost every phenomenon



5.  “.. how they move as a result of the expansion of the universe.”

  2nd OPINION: 

  Please refer my abstract dated 17th, Aug’ 2013 for General Relativity & Gravitation under heading "GRAVITY"- a PUSHING FORCE [-a "Layman concept of Unified Dark Energy"]

  This concept will change our STANDARD MODEL and open new path for exponential growth in research. It can be used to explain the reason of expansion of universe.



6.  Dark energy is like an anti-gravity. This works to push the universe apart. By tweaking Einstein's theory of gravity, or by creating brand new theories of gravity, cosmologists have found that dark energy could indicate that our understanding of gravity is wrong. Gravity attracts, but maybe it's repulsive on cosmic scales”’

  2nd OPINION: 

  Please refer my abstract dated 17th, Aug’ 2013 for General Relativity & Gravitation under heading "GRAVITY"- a PUSHING FORCE [-a "Layman concept of Unified Dark Energy"]

  I think, I am the first who not only said “"GRAVITY"- is a PUSHING FORCE [on the basis of Dark Energy] but also explain different phenomenon.


   Please refer my abstract dated 05th, March’ 2015  in





We live in interesting times. For thousands of years, we have thought we knew what the universe – and everything in it – was made of: normal matter, the kind that make up the elements of the periodic table.
However, the discovery in the 1990s of a completely unknown force dubbed dark energy that makes up 70% of the cosmos – causing it to expand at an accelerated rate – has taught us to be humble. Since then, astronomers have begun investing billions of pounds in experiments which aim to find out what this mysterious phenomenon is. What they discover is guaranteed to change physics forever.
WHAT'S HAPPENING NOW?
From the mountaintops of Chile and Hawaii, several telescopes have so far been retro-fitted with new cameras that are beginning to make maps of large areas of the sky. The Kilo Degree Survey, the Dark Energy Survey, and the HyperSuprimeCam Survey are all mapping about 10% of the sky in visible light.
The idea is to look at how galaxies and other structures are clustered across the sky. One way to do this is to measure "weak lensing", an effect where the light from distant galaxies is distorted by matter on its way to us, which unveils the scaffolding of matter in the universe. Dark energy has an impact on this because it stops the matter clumping together, which pushes everything apart. This can also be measured by looking at spectra, which separates starlight into its constituent wavelengths much like a prism does with sunlight, from galaxies.
Another measurement technique is based on tracking supernovae, bright flashes of light that we observe when massive stars die. Because the physics of stars is relatively well understood, the amount of light that is emitted can be determined very accurately. Therefore by measuring the brightness of supernovae their distances can be measured, helping us track how they move as a result of the expansion of the universe.
The experiments of the future
Each of these experiments plans to make their first results known soon. However they are not purpose-built dark energy explorers. To get the most reliable results, astronomers have gone back to the drawing board and created more powerful – and much, much more expensive – experiments with bigger cameras that can map larger parts of the sky.
One of these is Euclid, a new satellite that is being built by the European Space Agency. Due to launch in 2020, over only five years it will fundamentally change our view of the sky by taking high-resolution images, much like the Hubble space telescope did for a small patch of sky. Euclid will use both the weak lensing and galaxy clustering approaches to map half the sky.
Over in Chile, the eight-metre Large Synoptic Survey Telescope(LSST) is under construction. It too aims to map half the sky, but from the ground. Compared to Euclid, that will make a single very high-resolution image of the sky, LSST will make lower resolution pictures (blurred by the atmosphere). However its unique aspect is that it will create a movie of the sky by taking many hundreds of pictures over a decade, making it a powerful tool for detecting supernovae.
Meanwhile, the Square Kilometer Array(SKA) will observe the sky in radio wavelengths through a network of radio dishes, which can be spread hundreds of kilometres apart. The SKA will network together radio dishes from the Sahara to South Africa, and across Australia, creating a single continent-sized telescope.
In 2010, a decade-long US strategy for astronomy proposed to combine a dark energy experiment and an exoplanet telescope into one. The concept that was born was called WFIRST – a space telescope scanning for near-infrared waves. In 2012 the US National Reconnaissance Office offered to donate two unused "spy satellites", the same size as the Hubble Space Telescope but with a wider field of view. One of these satellites now forms the core of the experiment, expected to launch in the mid-2020s.
While each of these telescopes will work in isolation, cosmologists are realising they'll achieve more by combining the information from all of them. Because they are very different, problematic effects such as those caused by instrument defects, can be removed by comparing the results. In fact, we are creating single super telescope for humanity.
What could they find?
While we don't yet know what dark energy is, there are three main contenders for it:
Energy of the vacuum. Some believe that dark energy is simply a constant sea of energy at some particular value that fills space. But if this is the case, why does it have the particular value we observe rather than something else? After all if it were just a little bit higher the universe would blow apart. Failing to find a "natural explanation" for why the universe is so fine-tuned for intelligent life, some cosmologists resort to the Anthropic Principle, which states that the universe has this unlikely energy because if it didn't, we wouldn't be here to discuss it. But perhaps it is just part of a multiverse of parallel universes where the vacuum energy can be different in each?
Dark energy is like an anti-gravity. This works to push the universe apart. By tweaking Einstein's theory of gravity, or by creating brand new theories of gravity, cosmologists have found that dark energy could indicate that our understanding of gravity is wrong. Gravity attracts, but maybe it's repulsive on cosmic scales.
A new Higgs-like field. Cosmologists were very happy when the Higgs boson was discovered, partly because it's a manifestation of a "Higgs field" – the first fundamental "scalar field" observed in nature. A scalar field is one that has a value at every point in space-time but no direction. An everyday example might be a pressure map on a weather forecast (values everywhere but no direction). A wind map, on the other hand, isn't a scalar field as it has speed and overall direction.
Apart from Higgs, all particles in nature are associated with "quantum fields" that are like the analogy of wind maps. It has been theorised that, like Higgs, dark energy could be another example of a scalar field.
Of course all of these explanations may be wrong, dark energy could be something even stranger. But thanks to the efforts being put in over next decade, it seems we are close to finding out.
Source:: The Conversation