MAP

Sunday, 20 October 2013

US experiment to vote on dark matter 16 Oct 2013 | 01:10 BST | Posted by Eugenie Samuel Reich | NATURE NEWS BLOG

A US experiment is poised to resolve confusion over whether dark matter has already been detected. The Large Underground Xenon Experiment (LUX) at Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, South Dakota — announced on 15 October that it will release its first results on 30 October.
LUX began taking data earlier this year, promising to rival or even surpass limits on dark-matter detection set by a competitor, XENON-100, which is located at Gran Sasso National Laboratory near L’Aquila, Italy. In 2011, XENON-100 ruled out many heavier and more strongly interacting dark matter particles, but its result is in tension with tantalizing data hinting at the existence of light dark-matter particles from two other US experiments, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) at the University of California, Berkeley, and the CoGeNT experiment at Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. With more than 350 kilograms of liquid xenon held underground to snare dark-matter particles as they pass through the Earth, LUX might become the deciding vote. “I’m cautiously optimistic this could be the final word on the situation,” says dark-matter theorist Dan Hooper of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois.

Of course the final word on whether CDMS and CoGeNT’s dark-matter particles are real is far from the final word on whether dark matter is detectable on Earth; more weakly interacting particles could still be out there, and plans exist to scale up both XENON-100 and LUX to try to find them.

"Fat gravity particle gives clues to dark energy" Force-carrying ‘gravitons’ with mass could help to explain Universe's accelerating expansion. Zeeya Merali 10 September 2013

The Wall Street mantra “greed is good” could soon be adopted by cosmologists to explain the origins of dark energy, the mysterious entity that is speeding up the expansion of the Universe.
At a cosmology meeting last week in Cambridge, UK, attendants debated a controversial class of theories in which gravity is carried by a hypothetical ‘graviton’ particle that has a small, but still non-vanishing, mass. Such a particle would tend to gobble up vast amounts of energy from the fabric of space, enabling the Universe to expand at an accelerated, although not destructive, pace.
Since astronomers discovered in the late 1990s that the Universe's expansion is accelerating, researchers have struggled to explain not only the nature of the hypothetical entity — dubbed dark energy — that's causing the acceleration but also why the acceleration is so weak.
One of their best guesses is that dark energy is an inherent property of the vacuum of space. Particle physics predicts the existence of such vacuum energy, but also that it should be a whopping 10120 times larger than what is needed to explain the acceleration observed by astronomers. If dark energy were that large, the Universe would have been ripped apart long before stars and galaxies ever formed.
In 2010, Claudia de Rham, a cosmologist at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and her colleagues came up with the surprising suggestion that dark energy could be the vacuum energy if most of it were swallowed up by the hypothetical ‘graviton’ particle12. Physicists generally believe that there should be elementary particles, called gravitons, that carry the force of gravity, just as similar particles are known to carry the other three fundamental forces of nature: electromagnetism; the weak nuclear force, which governs radioactivity; and the strong nuclear force, which glues subatomic particles together within nuclei.
The range over which forces act is governed by the mass of their particles. Electromagnetism, for instance, is carried by massless particles of light, or photons, giving it an infinite range, whereas the W and Z particles that carry the weak nuclear force both have mass and their reach is confined to the scale of subatomic interactions.
Most physicists have assumed that the graviton would be massless like the photon, so that the reach of gravity could extend across the Universe. “We know that gravity is long-range because we feel gravity from the Sun — and that sets a bound on how large the graviton could be,” says de Rham. She and her colleagues realized, however, that if the graviton were given a tiny mass of less than 10–33 electronvolts, it could still fit with all astronomical observations. (By comparison, neutrinos, the particles with the smallest-known non-zero mass, have masses of the order of 1 electronvolt, and the electron has a mass of about 511,000 electronvolts.)
A graviton that is massive — as opposed to massless — would earn its heft by swallowing up almost all of the vacuum's energy, leaving behind just a small fraction as dark energy to cause the Universe to accelerate outwards.
Dark mystery
When de Rham's team first went public with their graviton model, it immediately created a stir because there are so few good solutions to the dark energy puzzle, says Mark Wyman, a cosmologist at New York University. “Suddenly there was a class of theories that had a real chance of attacking it,” he says. Moreover, massive gravitons would explain the Universe's biggest mystery without the need for adding new and exotic particles or extra dimensions of space, making this a “minimalist solution”, as de Rham describes it.
But the idea was nearly “killed in the crib”, Wyman adds, as physicists began scrutinizing it and found possible problems. One worry has been that the theory may contain hidden 'ghosts' — fields that contain negative energy and cannot exist in reality3 — but others have challenged this concern4. “We use the term ghosts because they are very scary and destroy any theory if they are present,” says de Rham, who remains adamant that her model is ghost-free.
Researchers have proposed a plethora of other ghost-free variations on de Rham’s original theme. In 2011, for instance, cosmologists Sayed Fawad Hassan of Stockholm University and Rachel Rosen of Columbia University in New York proposed combining two types of gravitons, one massive and the other massless, in one model. However, this would require a Universe where space is made of two overlapping fabrics that interact with each other5.
At the Cambridge meeting, several cosmologists including de Rham independently presented a series of models in which interplay between the two fabrics could naturally set space-time accelerating. This would generate the dark-energy effect that astronomers have observed through an alternative mechanism that does not require any vacuum energy.
The key to whether such theories will hold up will be to calculate if they make testable predictions to distinguish massive gravity from standard cosmology, says de Rham. Such experiments could soon be carried out within the Solar System, because massive-gravity models predict a gravitational field between Earth and the Moon that is slightly different to that of ordinary gravity. This would create a detectable difference of one part in 1012 in the precession of the Moon’s orbit around Earth.
Experiments that fire lasers back and forth between Earth and mirrors left on the Moon currently measure the distance between the two bodies and that angle with an accuracy of one part in 1011. “We are just on the edge of being able to test massive gravity,” says de Rham.
Until such experimental evidence is found, however, some remain sceptical of the entire massive-gravity idea. Viatcheslav Mukhanov, a cosmologist at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich, Germany, says that although he was initially attracted to the theory of massive gravity for its simplicity, bolting on new space-times and adding extra gravitons makes it too contrived. “I think the dark energy problem will require a more elegant solution,” he says.
But elegance is a matter of taste, says Wyman. “If they can settle on a unique compelling model that explains dark energy, I think people will have to take notice,” he says. “What happens in the next few months will decide if the theory has any relevance for the real world, or if it is just a flash in the pan.”

Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2013.13707

Thursday, 10 October 2013

GRAVITY- a pushing force, arising due to the Unification of Dark Energy

Shreekant
GRAVITY- a pushing force, arising due to the Unification of Dark Energy
Swaraj Groups, B-211, City Palace, Sher-e-Punjab, Adityapur, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India-831013
Abstract:
It has been consider that gravity is pulling force, from Newton to Einstein; everybody claimed that gravity is a pulling force, only its cause had been the matter of doubt. But, Einstein by his theory settled it. He claimed that it is the depression (bending) of space-time that is generating the pulling force. These concepts are now topic of doubt because it is not able to explain many of the ‘cosmic phenomenon’. At this stage of development, ‘out of box thinking’ shows a new path. Actually ‘Gravity’ is an ‘Effect’, which is pulling by nature, its real cause is not a pulling force as it has been assumed, claimed & proved time and again. The real cause of gravity is the “pushing force”- the single force of the universe that governs all the phenomenon of the universe. This fifth force is created by ‘unification of dark energy’. This paper explain why we stand on earth, why value of the acceleration due to gravity is more on earth surface, how tides form, how a satellite feel extra force while going other side (dark side) of the moon. It can also explain why our galaxies, stars, planets, moons, satellites etc. are moving in definite path. This concept will change our STANDARD MODEL and open new path for exponential growth in research. It can be used to explain the reason of expansion of universe, formation of galaxies, black holes, stars, planets, moons, asteroids, kuiper belt, comets etc. It is also responsible for the formation of dark atom and white atom (present visible atoms). So, I may conclude that our galaxies, stars, planets, moons etc. are not pulling us towards them, as it appears.
Key words: Gravity, Pulling force, Fifth force, shielding effect, standard model, dark energy