MAP

Friday, 29 August 2014

THE SUN AS BOREXINO SEES IT IN REAL TIME The neutrino experiment in the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratories has managed to measure the energy of our star in real time: the energy released today at the centre of the Sun is exactly the same as that produced 100,000 years ago

For the first time in the history of scientific investigation of our star, solar energy has been measured at the very moment of its generation. This has been announced by the Borexino experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The study is published on August 28th, 2014 in the prestigious international journal Nature.
Borexino has managed to measure the Sun’s energy in real-time, detecting the neutrinos produced by nuclear reactions inside the solar mass: these particles, in fact, take only a few seconds to escape from it and eight minutes to reach us. Previous measurements of solar energy, on the other hand, have always taken place on radiation (photons) which currently illuminate and heat the Earth and which refer to the same nuclear reactions, but which took place over a hundred thousand years ago: this, in fact, is the time it takes, on average, for the energy to travel through the dense solar matter and reach its surface. The comparison between the neutrino measurement now published by Borexino and the previous measurements concerning the emission of radiant energy from the Sun shows that solar activity has not changed in the last one hundred thousand years. "Thanks to the results of this new Borexino research we have seen, via the neutrinos produced in the proton-proton (pp) reaction, that it is the chain of pp nuclear fusions which makes the Sun work, providing precisely the energy that we measure with photons: in short, this proves that the Sun is an enormous nuclear fusion plant," says Gianpaolo Bellini, one of the fathers of the Borexino experiment.
The Borexino detector, installed in the INFN underground Laboratories of Gran Sasso, has managed to measure the flux of neutrinos produced inside the Sun in the fusion reaction of two hydrogen nuclei to form a deuterium nucleus: this is the seed reaction of the nuclear fusion cycle which produces about 99% of the solar energy. Up until now, Borexino had managed to measure the neutrinos from nuclear reactions that were part of the chain originated by this reaction or belonging to secondary chains, which contribute significantly less to the generation of solar energy, but which were key to the discovery of certain crucial physical properties of this "ephemeral" elementary particle, the neutrino.
The difficulty of the measurement just made is due to the extremely reduced energy of these neutrinos (they have, in fact, a maximum energy of 420 keV), the smallest one compared to the other neutrinos emitted by the Sun, which also have energy levels so low as to make it almost impossible to measure them and which only Borexino was and is able to measure. This performance makes Borexino a detector unique in the world, and it will remain so for a number of years, thanks to state-of-the-art technologies used in its construction, which have allowed not only the neutrinos emitted from the Sun but also those produced by our Earth to be studied.

The Borexino experiment is the result of a collaboration between European countries (Italy, Germany, France, Poland), the United States and Russia and it will take data for at least another four years, improving the accuracy of measurements already made and addressing others of great importance for both particle physics as well as astrophysics.

Wednesday, 27 August 2014

Long-sought neutrinos answer burning question about the Sun Underground lab catches low-energy particles that reveal crucial proton-proton fusion reaction. Ron Cowen 27 August 2014

After decades of searching, physicists have finally confirmed the existence of low-energy neutrinos that are direct evidence for the first crucial step in the nuclear reaction that makes the Sun shine. While the detection validates well-established stellar fusion theory, future, more sensitive versions of the experiment could look for deviations from the theory that would reveal new physics. The conversion of hydrogen into helium is the source of 99% of the Sun’s energy. The multistep process begins when the star’s hot, dense core squeezes two protons together to form deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen with a nucleus made of one proton and one neutron. One of the fused protons then transforms into a neutron, a process that releases a neutrino and a positron (the antimatter counterpart of the electron).
While the positrons are almost instantly annihilated in collisions with electrons, the neutrinos zip through matter unscathed, so they escape straight into outer space, radiating in all directions at nearly the speed of light. Other nuclear reactions in the Sun also produce neutrinos, and 100 billion of the particles bombard each square centimetre of Earth every second. The proton–proton reaction accounts for 90% of all solar neutrinos, but the neutrinos it emits have relatively low energy, and their signal can be swamped by the radioactive decay of ordinary terrestrial materials. Thus, although more-energetic solar neutrinos have been detected since the 1960s, those from the proton–proton reaction had eluded detection so far.
Now, the Borexino detector, housed beneath more than a kilometre of rock at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory near L'Aquila, Italy, has succeeded in detecting the neutrinos that accompany the proton-proton reaction at the solar core. Physicist Andrea Pocar of the University of Massachusetts Amherst and his collaborators report the findings in Nature1.
Although solar physicists had a general understanding of the Sun's nuclear reactions, they could have been mistaken about exactly which reactions take place and their relative importance. That would have left the question of how the Sun shines incompletely answered, says Michael Smy, a neutrino physicist at the University of California, Irvine. For this reason, the Borexino collaboration's direct detection of the neutrinos “is a landmark achievement”, he says.
Star light, star bright
The finding not only confirms how some 90% of the stars in the Milky Way — including those similar to the Sun but also many that are less massive — generate most of their energy, but provides a near-instantaneous snapshot of the solar core, since the neutrinos arrive at Earth just 8 minutes after they are created.
The core of the Borexino experiment features a nylon vessel containing 278 tonnes of an ultrapure benzene-like liquid that emits flashes of light when electrons are scattered by neutrinos. The liquid was derived from a crude-oil source nearly devoid of radioactive carbon-14, which can hide the neutrino signal. The detector fluid is surrounded by 889 tonnes of non-scintillating liquid that shields the vessel from spurious radiation emitted by the experiment's 2,212 light detectors.
Borexino can measure the flux of low-energy neutrinos with a precision of 10%. Future experiments could bring that down to 1%, providing a demanding test of theoretical predictions and thus potentially uncovering new physics.
For example, tiny mismatches between the rate of energy production indicated by neutrino detection and the energy from photons in the sunlight that reaches Earth could signify the presence of dark matter, the hypothetical invisible material believed to account for most of the mass in the Universe, says astrophysicist Aldo Serenelli of the Institute of Space Sciences in Bellaterra, Spain. Experiments may also be able to test how well models describe the transformation of electron neutrinos into two other types — tau neutrinos and muon neutrinos — as they travel from the solar core.

Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15779

Mysterious source of ozone-depleting chemical baffles NASA

A chemical used in dry cleaning and fire extinguishers may have been phased out in recent years but NASA said Wednesday that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is still being spewed into the atmosphere from an unknown source.

 The world agreed to stop using CC14 as part of the Vienna Convention on Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol, which attained universal ratification in 2009.
"Parties to the Montreal Protocol reported zero new CCl4 emissions between 2007-2012," the US space agency said in a statement.
"However, the new research shows worldwide emissions of CCl4 average 39 kilotons per year, approximately 30 percent of peak emissions prior to the international treaty going into effect."
CC14 levels are not enough to reverse the decreasing trend of ozone-depletion, but experts are still mystified as to where it is coming from.
With no new reported emissions, atmospheric concentrations of the compound should have declined at an expected rate of four percent per year since 2007.
However, observations from the ground showed atmospheric concentrations were only declining one percent per year.
"We are not supposed to be seeing this at all," said Qing Liang, an atmospheric scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
"It is now apparent there are either unidentified industrial leakages, large emissions from contaminated sites, or unknown CCl4 sources."
Researchers used NASA's 3-D GEOS Chemistry Climate Model and data from global networks of ground-based observations to establish the first estimate of average global CC14 emissions from 2000 to 2012.
In going through the data, researchers also learned that the chemical stays in the atmosphere were 40 percent longer than previously thought.
"People believe the emissions of ozone-depleting substances have stopped because of the Montreal Protocol," said Paul Newman, chief scientist for atmospheres at NASA.
"Unfortunately, there is still a major source of CCl4 out in the world."

The study was published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Wednesday, 20 August 2014

“COMPUTER MODEL SHOWS MOON'S CORE SURROUNDED BY LIQUID AND IT'S CAUSED BY EARTH'S GRAVITY” Jul 28, 2014 by Bob Yirka

(Phys.org) —A team of researchers with team members from China, the U.S. and Japan has created a computer model that shows that the moon is not solid all the way through—instead, it shows a liquid layer surrounding the core. In their paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, the team suggests the liquid layer, if it's really there, is caused by friction due to Earth's gravity.
Scientists have noted anomalies in measurements of the moon's orbit and associated gravitational readings for some time. Such anomalies have defied explanation, however, as models built to replicate them have generally produced results that weren't very clear. At root however, has been the idea that the moon's core may be covered by a thin layer of liquid. The team noted that gravitational readings of the moon indicate that there is rotation at the core that is not the same as other rotation measurements near the core. This suggests a liquid outer layer.
To getter a better idea of what might be going on at the moon's center, the researchers built a computer model that takes into account the gravity exerted by the moon, the earth and the sun. When set into motion, the model showed that a liquid layer over the core gave the same gravity readings as scientists have found when measuring the real moon. This suggests, the team reports, that a liquid layer does truly exist, and likely has been there for a very long time.
As for why such a layer would exist, the team suggests that the tug of Earth's gravity—tidal heating—is likely playing a role, causing friction between the core and material above it, resulting in the creation and maintenance of a liquid layer.

A lot more research will have to be done, of course, before scientists accept the results of the computer model. But if such research should prove that there is a liquid layer, scientists might have to do some rethinking of theories that describe the origin of the moon. If the moon was created due to a large body striking Earth, why did it not cool down over the four and half billion years since then, to the extent that it would be too cold for a liquid layer to exist today?