MAP

Tuesday, 3 March 2015

SCIENTISTS PROVIDE NEW DATA ON THE NATURE OF DARK MATTER 16 hours ago

“Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada sheds light on the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. As indirect evidence provided by its gravitational effects, dark matter amounts to more than 80% of the universe.”

2ND OPINION:
Since  June’2013 I have been writing that there is a role of Dark Atom & Dark Energy in Gravitation.


My manuscript sent to “General Relativity and Gravitation” journal on 17th,Aug.’2013 -"GRAVITY"- a PUSHING FORCE [-a "Layman concept of Unified Dark Energy“]


“This project is evidence of the increasing collaboration between particle physicists and astrophysicists, which has originated a relatively new type of science, 'astroparticle physics'

 2ND OPINION:
“theory of everything – on the basis of dark atom & dark energy is the connecting link between astrophysics & particle physics.


I think we are still confused between Dark Atom Dark Energy. Normally  stars will not release Dark Atom/Matter.

I have been writing since 2013 in different platform -  can be searched in Google by writing ‘Dark Matter Shreekant’ or ‘dark energy Shreekant’


Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada sheds light on the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. As indirect evidence provided by its gravitational effects, dark matter amounts to more than 80% of the universe.

In an article published in the prestigious journal Physical Review Letters, Adrián Ayala and her PhD thesis supervisor, Inmaculada Domínguez, both members of the FQM Stelar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis research group, have set limits on the properties of one of the particles considered a dark matter candidate: axions.
Researchers in this project also included Maurizio Giannotti (Barry University, USA), Alessandro Mirizzi (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Germany) and Oscar Straniero (National Astrophysics Institute, INAF-Astronomic Observatory in Teramo, Italy). This project is evidence of the increasing collaboration between particle physicists and astrophysicists, which has originated a relatively new type of science, 'astroparticle physics'
In this project, scientists have used stars as particle physics labs. Thanks to the high temperature inside stars, photons can turn into axions that escape to the exterior, carrying energy with them.
"This loss of energy can have consequences, whether they are observable or not, in some phases of stellar evolution", says Adrián Ayala. "In our research, we have conducted numerical simulations (by computer) of the evolution of a star, since its birth until it exhausts all the hydrogen first and then the helium in its interior, including the processes that produce axions."
Results indicate that the emission of axions can significantly diminish the time for the central combustion of helium, the so called HB (Horizontal Branch) phase—the energy taken by axions is compensated with the energy provided by nuclear combustion, which leads to a much faster consumption of helium.
"Using this influence over the timing that features in this sort of evolution, we can determine the emission of axions, since a high emission rate means a quick HB phase, thus diminishing the possibility of watching stars in this phase", says Immaculada Domínguez.
Maximum axion emission rate
The high quality in the recent observation of globular clusters allows for the contrast between the results of the numerical observations conducted in this project with the actual data. "By comparing the amount of stars observed in HB phase with the amount of stars watched in a different phase not affected by axions (such as the so called RGB, Red Giant Branch, phase) we have made an estimation about the maximum axion emission rate.
The production of axions relies on the constant coupling of axion-photon which characterizes the interaction between axion and photons. "We have obtained a maximum limit for this constant which is more restrictive than those established so far, both theoretically and through experiments", these U. of Granada researchers point out.
The authors of this research point out that the accuracy in the determination of the coupling constant through the method used "critically depends on the accuracy with which the initial helium content within the stars in the globular cluster can be estimated"

RESEARCH TEAM BENDS HIGHLY ENERGETIC ELECTRON BEAM WITH CRYSTAL Feb 26, 2015

[My 2ND OPINION is on the basis of "theory of everything - on the basis of dark atom & dark energy"]

“Bent crystals can also introduce extraordinarily tight curvatures into electron beams: 
2ND OPINION:
It is true. 

“Since deflected electrons emit very intense light, the tighter bend could potentially be exploited to produce intense X-rays and gamma rays.”

2ND OPINION:
It is true.  But when  electron  or other larger particles hit the house of the atom  some equivalent better to say proportionate amount of “dressed up energy”  comes out but master bed room is not  involved [EVEN IN LHC PROTON COLLISION], Master bed room involved in special condition. It is the separate  topics,  in case of electron the small energy with thin cloth comes out from guest room, in case of larger particles  the larger energy  with thick cloth comes out.

"Crystals have already been used to deflect and collimate proton beams. But the way electrons, which have the opposite charge, propagate through a crystal lattice – a three-dimensional grid of positively charged atomic nuclei – has not been studied under beam conditions planned for forthcoming accelerator applications such as SLAC's future X-ray laser LCLS-II. The new study, published Feb. 19 in Physical Review Letters, closes this gap."

2ND OPINION:
It is true.  But for it
1. we must know how the crystal formed at atomic level – role of white atom, dark atom & dark energy.
2. we must pectoris the other components of the crystal.
3. we must also visualise the shape of tunnel or path [shown figure] is simpler one.
4. we must also visualise the  position of atomic electrons.

"one of only a few machines in the world that can generate intense, focused electron beams with an energy of several billion electron volts"

2ND OPINION:
It is true.  But it has been happening in universe , better to say in our vicinity depending on particular condition. We can also use it for our experiment.

"They rotated the crystal to change the angle at which the electrons entered the crystal lattice and measured the resulting beam deflection with a phosphor screen."

2ND OPINION:
In nature it is happening under the control of certain condition..  No need of artificial rotation.


An international team of researchers working at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that a bent silicon crystal can bend the paths of focused, very energetic electron beams much more than magnets used today. The method could be of interest for particle accelerator applications such as next-generation X-ray lasers that will help scientists unravel atomic structures and motions in unprecedented detail.

 "Bent crystals can be used, for instance, to deflect unwanted electrons in the outer regions of an electron beam, effectively peeling them away to leave only the core of the beam behind," said SLAC researcher
Uli Wienands, who led the project. "Our study has shown that this can be done with high-energy electron beams as well." This procedure of cleaning up the electron beam, called beam collimation, is important for X-ray lasers, for example, to prevent irradiation of and damage to the permanent magnets that generate the X-ray light.
Bent crystals can also introduce extraordinarily tight curvatures into electron beams: The deflections achieved in this study would require magnets 26 times stronger than the ones in the world's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory. Since deflected electrons emit very intense light, the tighter bend could potentially be exploited to produce intense X-rays and gamma rays.
Volume Reflection and Channeling
Crystals have already been used to deflect and collimate proton beams. But the way electrons, which have the opposite charge, propagate through a crystal lattice – a three-dimensional grid of positively charged atomic nuclei – has not been studied under beam conditions planned for forthcoming accelerator applications such as SLAC's future X-ray laser LCLS-II. The new study, published Feb. 19 in Physical Review Letters, closes this gap.
In their experiment at SLAC's End Station A Test Beam facility – one of only a few machines in the world that can generate intense, focused electron beams with an energy of several billion electronvolts – the researchers sent electrons through a specifically prepared bent silicon crystal that was merely as thin as a sheet of paper. They rotated the crystal to change the angle at which the electrons entered the crystal lattice and measured the resulting beam deflection with a phosphor screen.
When electrons hit the crystal lattice at a relatively large angle, they plowed straight through.

 However, when the angle decreased, the crystal deflected the beam to a new position on the screen. "Below a certain critical angle, the electron bounces off a plane of the crystal lattice and is reflected in the direction opposite to the crystal bend," Wienands says. This process is called volume reflection.
For even smaller angles, the electrons became trapped in the plane of the crystal lattice, and the deflected beam followed the crystal's bend, an effect known as channeling.
The scientists observed that volume reflection was a very efficient process, with up to 95 percent of the electrons being reflected. Channeling led to larger deflections but was also less efficient, with only a little more than 20 percent of electrons remaining trapped over the length of the crystal.
Potential Applications
Since the initial experiment described in the present paper, the researchers have measured channeling and volume reflection over a larger energy range, enabling them to predict how these processes can be used at future high-energy electron-positron colliders that will help scientists better understand the Higgs boson and other fundamental particles in the universe. In this context, it is also important to analyze channeling and volume reflection for positrons, the antiparticles of electrons. The results of these experiments at SLAC's Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET), a DOE Office of Science User Facility, will be the subject of future publications.
In parallel, Wienands and his colleagues are developing the idea of building a "crystal undulator" for electron beams. Regular undulators are large magnetic structures that force electrons onto an oscillating flight path, where they emit intense X-rays at every bend. "With a few-millimeters-long crystal, one could potentially replace several tens of meters of magnetic structure," Wienands says.
Most experiments so far have shown crystal undulators to be ineffective for electrons; instead they used positrons, which are difficult and expensive to generate. A device that works with electron beams would therefore be a significant development.
The study was conducted by an international research team with contributions from SLAC and the California Polytechnic State University in the United States, the University of Aarhus in Denmark and the University of Ferrara/Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Section of Ferrara in Italy.
Journal reference: Physical Review Letters