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Thursday, 28 January 2016

OUR IMPERFECT VACUUM - 01/26/16 - By Signe Brewster. The emptiest parts of the universe aren’t so empty after all.

Is ORAL PRESENTATION in an INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE CONFERENCE has any RELEVANCE in SCIENTIFIC WORLD or not? IF YES, please refer my following claims or IF NOT, why people are invited to give innovative thought or hypothesis.


I have already given oral presentation in International Science Conference in Vietnam on “ Planetary System – a synergistic view”’ held between 19th – 25th, July’2015.  My topic was “Regeneration of Stars & formation of Solar system – a potter man’s concept”, A NEW HYPOTHESIS FOR THE FORMATION OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM on the basis of COSMOLOGY & PARTICLE PHYSICS.


I am working on the “Theory of Everything - on the basis of Dark atom & Dark Energy”


Why my work is important?


I have been writing on different topics & different branches of science since 2013.



I WANT TO DRAW YOUR KIND ATTENTION ON TWO MAIN ARTICLES & MY COMMENTS TO JUSTIFY MYSELF:

1.“OUR IMPERFECT VACUUM”’ - 01/26/16 -  By Signe Brewster. The emptiest parts of the universe aren’t so empty after all.


  2nd OPINION:  

  I HAVE BEEN WRITING THAT OUR UNIVERSE IS  NOT VACUUM, IT IS FILLED WITH     DARK ATOM, WHITE ATOM & DARK ENERGY – on the basis of it I have been        writing my comments in different International science magazine, periodicals,    blogs & conferences.

  Kindly refer to the SLIDES OF MY ORAL PRESENTATION IN VIETNAM ON 24TH, JULY’ 2015  

  Kindly refer my conversation with CERN scientist Pauline in 2013


  Kindly refer my comments dated 26th, Jan.’2014 on “Journey Into the Dark Realm” - By Don Lincoln on Wed, 22 Jan 2014


  Kindly refer my comments dated 20th, Oct.’2013 on “US experiment to vote on          Dark Matter” - 16 Oct 2013 | 01:10 GMT | Posted by Eugenie Samuel Reich


  Kindly refer my comments dated 02nd , April’2014 on “Case for Dark Matter Signal   Strengthens” - By: Natalie Wolchover March 3, 2014 -      [simonsfoundation.org/quanta]


  Kindly refer my comments dated 20th, Oct.’2013 on “Fat gravity particle gives      clues to dark energy Force-carrying ‘gravitons’ with mass could help to explain    Universe's accelerating expansion.



2.   Using observations from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have found that dark matter does not slow down when colliding with itself, meaning it interacts with itself less than previously thought.

 “NASA’s Hubble, Chandra Find Clues that May Help Identify Dark Matter - March 26, 2015, RELEASE 15-046


2nd OPINION: 

I HAVE BEEN WRITING THAT DARK ATOM IS NOT COLLIDING IT IS READJUSTING

Kindly refer my comments dated 1st , April’2015





In the Large Hadron Collider, two beams of protons race around a 17-mile ring more than 1 million times before slamming into each other inside the massive particle detectors.
But rogue particles inside the beam pipes can pick off protons with premature collisions, reducing the intensity of the beam. As a result, the teams behind the LHC and other physics experiments around the world take great care to scrub their experimental spaces of as many unwanted particles as possible.
Ideally, they would conduct their experiments in a perfect vacuum. The problem is that there’s no such thing.
Even after a thorough evacuating, the LHC’s beam pipes contain about 3 million molecules per cubic centimeter. That density of particles is similar to what you would find 620 miles above Earth.
“In the real world [a perfect vacuum] doesn’t happen,” says Linda Valerio, a mechanical engineer who works on the vacuum system at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. “Scientists are able to determine the acceptable level of vacuum required for each experiment, and engineers design the vacuum system to that level. The better the vacuum must be, the more cost and effort associated with achieving and maintaining it."
Humans have been thinking about vacuums for thousands of years. Ancient philosophers called atomists argued that the world was made up of two elements: atoms and the void. Aristotle argued that nature would not allow a void to exist; particles around a vacuum would always move to fill it. And in the early 1700s, Isaac Newton argued that what seemed to be empty space was actually filled with an element called aether, a medium through which light could travel.
Physicists now know that even what appears to be empty space contains particles. Spaces between galaxies are known to contain a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter.
No space is ever truly empty. Virtual particles pop in and out of existence everywhere. Virtual particles appear in matter-antimatter pairs and annihilate one another almost instantly. But they can interact with actual particles, which is how scientists find evidence of their existence.
Another inhabitant of the void is the faint thermal radiation left over from the big bang. It exists as a pattern of photons called the cosmic microwave background.
“When we think about vacuums, we generally think about [the absence of] particles with mass,” says Seth Digel, a SLAC experimental physicist who works with the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology. “But if you expand the definition to include photons, to include the microwave background, then there isn’t any part of space that’s really empty."
It turns out the universe is a little less lonely than previously thought.

Tuesday, 26 January 2016

THE PROPERTIES OF PRE-STELLAR CORES - January 18, 2016

1.“Stars like the Sun begin their lives as cold, dense cores of dust and gas that collapse under the influence of gravity until nuclear fusion is ignited.” 

2nd OPINION:
         Why & how dense core formed? What is the initial thing that unite? What is the reason of pulling force [as per present science – gravity] that act on initial building materials? Why nuclear fusion is ignited?

         I am agree that formation of STARS begin their lives as cold, dense core of dust & gas.

         But it is true for primary stars not for our sun because our sun is now secondary star.

Reference: My comments in


        I am writing it since 2013 on the basis of Dark matter & Dark energy. 

Reference: My comments in



         I already explained the basics of “universal science” in my oral presentation on 24th, July 2015 in International Science conference in Vietnam on “Planetary system – a synergistic view – 19th- 25th, July’’ 2015.

Reference: Slides of my oral presentation



2.   “In the early stages of star formation, an embryonic star heats the surrounding dust cloud to temperatures between about ten and thirty degrees Kelvin before stellar winds and radiation blow the material away and expose the newborn star”.

2nd OPINION:

         Different elements or compound have certain characteristics & they always act accordingly when they are subjected to the particular conditions at any part of the universe.

         Explained by me in my Vietnam presentation.

         Reason of heat generation is also explained in my  presentation but in reference to planet formation. In star formation near galactic core [disk area] some basics are similar.

         When the condition of particular place changes the Dark atom , White atom & Dark energy flow is readjusted & redirected.


3.“The new paper and its catalog are just the beginning: now that the dust in all these cores has been well characterized, astronomers can associate chemistry with dust temperature”.

2nd OPINION:

         I have already explained the basics of chemistry with dust temperature in my presentation.

Reference: Slides of my oral presentation




Stars like the Sun begin their lives as cold, dense cores of dust and gas that collapse under the influence of gravity until nuclear fusion is ignited. These cores contain hundreds to thousands of solar-masses of material and have gas densities about a thousand times greater than typical interstellar regions (the typical value is about one molecule per cubic centimeter). How the collapse process occurs in these embryos in poorly understood, from the number of stars that form to the factors that determine their ultimate masses, as well as the detailed timescale for stellar birth. Material, for example, might simply fall freely to the center of the core, but in most realistic scenarios the infall is inhibited by pressure from warm gas, turbulent motions, magnetic fields, or some combination of them.

 Astronomers are actively studying these issues by observing young stars in the process of being born. The 
dust in these natal cores (or clumps), however, makes them opaque in the optical, thus requiring observations at other wavelengths, in particular infrared, submillimeter, and radio. In the early stages of star formation, an embryonic star heats the surrounding dust cloud to temperatures between about ten and thirty degrees kelvin before stellar winds and radiation blow the material away and expose the newborn star. CfA astronomers Andres Guzman and Howard Smith, together with their colleagues, have completed an analysis of 3246 star-forming cores, the largest sample ever done. The cold cores themselves were discovered with the APEX submillimeter-wavelength sky survey and then observed in sixteen submillimeter spectral lines; the spectral information enabled the astronomers to determine the distance to each core as well as to probe its chemistry and internal gas motions. The new paper combines these results with far-infrared measurements taken by Herschel Space Observatory surveys. The Herschel data allow the scientists to calculate the dust density, mass, and temperature of each core; the large dataset then permits useful statistical comparisons between cores with varyious parameters.
Sources in the sample fall generically into four categories: quiescent clumps, which have the coldest temperatures (16.8K) and the least infrared emission, protostellar clumps, which are sources with the youngest identifiable stellar objects, ionized hydrogen regions, which are cores within which the stars have ionized some of the surrounding gas, and "photo-dissociation" cores, the warmest of the set, which have dust temperatures around 28K, are slightly more evolved and brighter than the ionized hydrogen cores. Although the groups overlap in their properties, the large sample enables the scientists to conclude that, on average, in the quiescent clumps the dust temperature increases towards the outer regions, whereas the temperatures in protostellar and ionized hydrogen cores increase towards the inner region, consistent with the idea that they are being internally heated. The latter also tend to have dust densities that increase more steeply than the quiescent cores. This study has also identified a population of particularly cold and infrared-dark objects that are probably still in the stages of contraction, or else for some reason have had their star formation aborted. The new paper and its catalog are just the beginning: now that the dust in all these cores has been well characterized, astronomers can associate chemistry with dust temperature, for example, and study subgroups that might represent different stellar masses in gestation.
Explore further: Hot cores in dark clouds
More information: Far-Infrared Dust Temperatures and Column Densities of the MALT90 Molecular Clump Sample. arxiv.org/abs/1511.00762

Sunday, 24 January 2016

“EVIDENCE FOR A DISTANT GIANT PLANET IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM”

AM I JOKING SINCE 2013?

I am blogging on science since 2013, I have written several comments & opinions on different topics [branches] of science.


I have also given 20 minutes of oral presentation on 24th, July’2015 in International Science Conference on Planetary System – a synergistic view” in Vietnam between 19th – 25th July’2015. My topic was “Regeneration of Stars & formation of solar system – a potter man’s concept”

Since 2013, I think ONLY I HAVE BEEN WRITING that the alignment of different heavenly body can PUSH [not PULL] the object in our solar system & its orbit is different from our solar system.


1.Hints that ‘Planet Nine’ may exist on edge of our solar system


2nd OPINION:

  In my abstract & my oral presentation also – “Kuiper belt is the ‘highly energetic   belt’  capable of making new bodies when raw materials are present. The alignment of Sun, Planets and Moons may cause entry of foreign body in our system.”


  Reason of entry of an object in our solar system is explained [under sub heading   SHIELDING EFFECT]

  Reason of the path of an object around Sun is explained [under sub heading    PATH AROUND THE STARS]

  In the manuscript sent by me 17th, Aug.’’2013 under heading "GRAVITY"- a    PUSHING FORCE [-a "Layman concept of Unified Dark Energy"] in General    Relativity and Gravitation journal.


  My comments in point 28 – “…..Hence situation likes DOOMS DAY may arise    but its impact  on earth may be seen after many years.” in below link


  My comments in -