MAP

Monday, 29 February 2016

NASA’s IBEX Observations Pin Down Interstellar Magnetic Field - Feb. 26, 2016

A. “The origin of the so-called IBEX ribbon was unknown – but its very existence opened doors to observing what lies outside our solar system, the way drops of rain on a window tell you more about the weather outside.”

 2nd OPINION: 

The origin of IBEX ribbon is KNOWN. I can EXPLAIN it by my hypothesis “Theory of everything on the basis of Dark atom & Dark energy.

 Reference:

1.  “OUT OF BOX THINKING’ IS ESSENTIAL IN BASIC SCIENCE” written on 20th, June’ 2013

What you say when a SINGLE “GARBAGE TYPE OF CONCEPT” explain / re-explain the following-
“Formation of Planet, Satellite, Asteroid Belt, Kuiper Belt…..”


1.  Blog written on 10th, April’ 2013

In my view- HELIOPAUSE is a neutral zone where the resultant force [PUSHING] of all the nearby stars of the galaxy is zero & temperature is lowest.


2.  GRAVITY"- a PUSHING FORCE [-a "Layman concept of Unified Dark Energy"]” sent on 17th, Aug.’2013 to world’s on of the reputed Journal ‘General Relativity and Gravitation. Unfortunately it was rejected due to lack of Scientific language but now it VERY IMPORTANT for new science i.e. UNIVERSAL SCIENCE [Explained by me in my oral presentation  in Vietnam also]

               Manuscript no. - GERG-D-13-00356


4. My oral presentation on “Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter man's concept” in International Science conference [“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th, July’15]



B.   “– which lies at the very edge of the giant magnetic bubble”

         2nd OPINION: 

Magnetism is nothing; it is the effects of Dark energy.         

 Reference:        

1.  “THEORY of EVERYTHING”- 1st step on the basis of Dark Energy & Dark Matter” written on 24th, Jan.’ 2015

Point no. 4, 22 & 26


2, My oral presentation on “Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter man's concept” in International Science conference [“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th , July’15]


C. “particles streaming in from the ribbon are actually solar material reflected back at us after a long journey to the edges of the sun’s magnetic boundaries.” 

2nd OPINION: 

I CONTRADICT,, MOSTLY it is NOT. It is the MIXTURE of all …. Coming from different sources due to PARTICULAR condition [explained in my presentation]

Reference: 

1. It is the part of my oral presentation on “Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter man's concept” in International Science conference [“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th, July’15]

2. "GRAVITY"- a PUSHING FORCE [-a "Layman concept of Unified Dark Energy"]” sent on 17th, Aug.’2013 to one of the reputed Journal ‘General Relativity and Gravitation


D.  “The sun’s constant outflow of ionized gas, known as plasma. When these particles reach the edges of the Heliosphere,   their motion becomes more complicated. 

2nd OPINION: 

HOW & WHY they IONISED?  Their motions are not COMPLICATED. Elements become naked before reaching Heliosphere. In Heliosphere it again wears the same cloth but soon they lose it due to dullness [due to ….] again. But luckily they got the cloth of alien counterpart. But to catch it they have to change the direction also. REASON of all this can be infers from my oral presentation in Vietnam.

Reference: 

1.  “Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter   man's concept” in International Sc. conference [“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th , July’15] 
  
2. “GRAVITY"- a PUSHING FORCE [-a "Layman concept of Unified Dark Energy"]” sent on 17th, Aug.’2013 to world’s on of the reputed Journal ‘General Relativity and Gravitation.


E. “Outside the Heliosphere lies the interstellar medium, with plasma that has different speed, density, and temperature than solar wind plasma, as well as neutral gases.”

2nd OPINION: 

I ALREADY MENTIONED IN MY PRESENTATION ON 24TH, JULY’2015 IN TERM OF DARK ENERGY

Reference: 

1.  Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter man's concept” in International Science conference [“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th, July’15]

 
 F. “For instance, simulations show that the most energetic particles come from a different region of space than the least energetic particles, which gives clues as to how the interstellar magnetic field interacts with the heliosphere.”

2nd OPINION:

How the particles become most & least energetic? I already mentioned in my presentation on 24th, July ’2015 in term of dark energy

 Reference: 

1.  Regeneration of Star & formation of a Solar system – a Potter man's concept” in International Science conference [“Planetary System – a synergistic view”] at Vietnam [19th-25th, July’15] 

Everything related to it can be explained by the “THEORY OF EVERYTHING – on the basis if Dark Atom & Dark Energy”

I am not claiming that “I AM THE ONLY GAME IN THE TOWN”. But I am sure that “MY RULE WILL CHANGE THE GAME”.

My work is important because I'm thinking out of box, I am looking the Universe from another window (of Dark Matter & Dark Energy) while our scientific window is different but on many topic we are drawing the same picture of universe.[www.swarajgroups.blogspot.in]





Immediately after its 2008 launch, NASA’s Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, spotted a curiosity in a thin slice of space: More particles streamed in through a long, skinny swath in the sky than anywhere else. The origin of the so-called IBEX ribbon was unknown – but its very existence opened doors to observing what lies outside our solar system, the way drops of rain on a window tell you more about the weather outside.
Now, a new study uses IBEX data and simulations of the interstellar boundary – which lies at the very edge of the giant magnetic bubble surrounding our solar system called the heliosphere – to better describe space in our galactic neighborhood. The paper, published Feb. 8, 2016, in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, precisely determines the strength and direction of the magnetic field outside the heliosphere. Such information gives us a peek into the magnetic forces that dominate the galaxy beyond, teaching us more about our home in space.
The new paper is based on one particular theory of the origin of the IBEX ribbon, in which the particles streaming in from the ribbon are actually solar material reflected back at us after a long journey to the edges of the sun’s magnetic boundaries. A giant bubble, known as the heliosphere, exists around the sun and is filled with what’s called solar wind, the sun’s constant outflow of ionized gas, known as plasma. When these particles reach the edges of the heliosphere, their motion becomes more complicated.  
“The theory says that some solar wind protons are sent flying back towards the sun as neutral atoms after a complex series of charge exchanges, creating the IBEX ribbon,” said Eric Zirnstein, a space scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas, and lead author on the study. “Simulations and IBEX observations pinpoint this process – which takes anywhere from three to six years on average – as the most likely origin of the IBEX ribbon.”
Outside the heliosphere lies the interstellar medium, with plasma that has different speed, density, and temperature than solar wind plasma, as well as neutral gases. These materials interact at the heliosphere’s edge to create a region known as the inner heliosheath, bounded on the inside by the termination shock – which is more than twice as far from us as the orbit of Pluto – and on the outside by the heliopause, the boundary between the solar wind and the comparatively dense interstellar medium.
Some solar wind protons that flow out from the sun to this boundary region will gain an electron, making them neutral and allowing them to cross the heliopause. Once in the interstellar medium, they can lose that electron again, making them gyrate around the interstellar magnetic field. If those particles pick up another electron at the right place and time, they can be fired back into the heliosphere, travel all the way back toward Earth, and collide with IBEX’s detector. The particles carry information about all that interaction with the interstellar magnetic field, and as they  hit the detector they can give us unprecedented insight into the characteristics of that region of space.
“Only Voyager 1 has ever made direct observations of the interstellar magnetic field, and those are close to the heliopause, where it’s distorted,” said Zirnstein. “But this analysis provides a nice determination of its strength and direction farther out.”
The directions of different ribbon particles shooting back toward Earth are determined by the characteristics of the interstellar magnetic field. For instance, simulations show that the most energetic particles come from a different region of space than the least energetic particles, which gives clues as to how the interstellar magnetic field interacts with the heliosphere.
For the recent study, such observations were used to seed simulations of the ribbon’s origin. Not only do these simulations correctly predict the locations of neutral ribbon particles at different energies, but the deduced interstellar magnetic field agrees with Voyager 1 measurements, the deflection of interstellar neutral gases, and observations of distant polarized starlight.
However, some early simulations of the interstellar magnetic field don’t quite line up. Those pre-IBEX estimates were based largely on two data points – the distances at which Voyagers 1 and 2 crossed the termination shock.  
“Voyager 1 crossed the termination shock at 94 astronomical units, or AU, from the sun, and Voyager 2 at 84 AU,” said Zirnstein. One AU is equal to about 93 million miles, the average distance between Earth and the sun. “That difference of almost 930 million miles was mostly explained by a strong, very tilted interstellar magnetic field pushing on the heliosphere.” 
But that difference may be accounted for by considering a stronger influence from the solar cycle, which can lead to changes in the strength of the solar wind and thus change the distance to the termination shock in the directions of Voyager 1 and 2. The two Voyager spacecraft made their measurements almost three years apart, giving plenty of time for the variable solar wind to change the distance of the termination shock.
“Scientists in the field are developing more sophisticated models of the time-dependent solar wind,” said Zirnstein.
The simulations generally jibe well with the Voyager data.
“The new findings can be used to better understand how our space environment interacts with the interstellar environment beyond the heliopause,” said Eric Christian, IBEX program scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, who was not involved in this study. “In turn, understanding that interaction could help explain the mystery of what causes the IBEX ribbon once and for all.”
The Southwest Research Institute leads IBEX with teams of national and international partners. NASA Goddard manages the Explorers Program for the agency’s Heliophysics Division within the Science Mission Directorate in Washington.
Related Link
Last Updated: Feb. 26, 2016
Editor: Rob Garner

Thursday, 25 February 2016

LIGO'S TWIN BLACK HOLES MIGHT HAVE BEEN BORN INSIDE A SINGLE STAR - February 23, 2016

WHEN WHOLE WORLD IS CELEBRATING THE SUCCESS OF EINSTEIN ON RECEIVING THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVE. 

I HAVE RAISED SOME POINTS ON 18TH, FEB.’2016  IN MY BLOG 


What if Gravitational wave is not due the fast spinning of two black hole [as seems & claimed] ….




1.  “New research suggests that the two black holes might have resided inside a single, massive star whose death generated the gamma-ray                   burst.

2nd OPINION: 

I think we are confused again. What is black hole? What is Galactic core? How they are related ?

The two black hole are sub-holes seen only in the particular phase of larger Galactic core – periodically. They are created by …. [at least NOT FROM SINGLE BLACK HOLE – as claimed in this paper].

So, in my view BLACK HOLE is the combined effect of these two.

The two INFANT BLACK can MERGE but two  JUVENILE or MATURE black hole NOT. It happen only when the plane of two different galaxies are in particular position – which is rare.

Here I also want to point out that Black hole does not means that there is nothing [hollow passage] in the middle of it.

Here in this case ‘there is  NO DEATH of MASSIVE STARS, it may be the case of FRIENDSHIP which is the phase of life of Galactic core.

Reference:

My comment 1(b) & 1(c) dated 24th, Jan.’2016 on “Birth of high mass stars & the origin of life" – Dec. 29, 2015”



2.  “It's the cosmic equivalent of a pregnant woman carrying twins inside her belly," says Harvard astrophysicist Avi Loeb of the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

2nd OPINION: 

AGREED. But twins are not developed in mother’s uterus, it is implanted there by certain condition. Again -Black holes is the effect.


3.  “Normally, when a massive star reaches the end of its life, its core collapses into a single black hole. But if the star was spinning very rapidly, its core might stretch into a dumbbell shape and fragment into two clumps, each forming its own black hole”. 

2nd OPINION:

For 1st part I also AGREED. But, the reason behind the formation of two black hole from one is not true. I am fully DISAGREE. The reason is different


4.   “A very massive star as needed here often forms out of the merger of two smaller stars. And since the stars would have revolved around each other faster and faster as they spiraled together, the resulting merged star would be expected to spin very quickly

2nd OPINION: 

I also AGREED. But SPIN is very important. Please refer my comment dated 13th & 20th , June’ 2013



5.   “After the black hole pair formed, the star's outer envelope rushed inward toward them. In order to power both the gravitational wave event and the gamma-ray burst”.

2nd OPINION:  

OUTER envelope, but of  WHAT? And HOW? How gravitational wave really formed? HOW & WHY it is in wave form?  WHY its amplitude INCREASES near Earth? WHY Gravitational wave reach before gamma rays?


6.  “The newly formed single black hole then fed on the in falling matter, consuming up to a Sun's worth of material every second and powering jets of matter that blasted outward to create the burst.”

2nd OPINION:  

But not  so easy. INFORMATION LOSS is not taking place. Blasting outward is not followed immediately after FEEDING. It depends on the …………


7.  "Even if the Fermi detection is a false alarm, future LIGO events should be monitored for accompanying light irrespective of whether they originate from black hole mergers. Nature can always surprise us," says Loeb.

2nd OPINION: 

Gravitational wave not only originate in GALACTIC CORE, but also during SUPERNOVA blast & …….  But intensities are different.



1.  STUDY EXPLAINS DECADES OF BLACK HOLE OBSERVATIONS


2.  ”HE FABRIC OF SPACE AND TIME IS IN TURMOIL” – MORE ON STEPHEN HAWKING’S BLACK HOLE UPDATE
  

3.   OUT OF BOX THINKING IS ESSENTIAL IN BASIC SCIENCE

 

 


On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes 29 and 36 times the mass of the Sun. Such an event is expected to be dark, but the Fermi Space Telescope detected a gamma-ray burst just a fraction of a second after LIGO's signal. New research suggests that the two black holes might have resided inside a single, massive star whose death generated the gamma-ray burst.
"It's the cosmic equivalent of a pregnant woman carrying twins inside her belly," says Harvard astrophysicist Avi Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).
Normally, when a massive star reaches the end of its life, its core collapses into a single black hole. But if the star was spinning very rapidly, its core might stretch into a dumbbell shape and fragment into two clumps, each forming its own black hole.
A very massive star as needed here often forms out of the merger of two smaller stars. And since the stars would have revolved around each other faster and faster as they spiraled together, the resulting merged star would be expected to spin very quickly.
After the black hole pair formed, the star's outer envelope rushed inward toward them. In order to power both the gravitational wave event and the gamma-ray burst, the twin black holes must have been born close together, with an initial separation of order the size of the Earth, and merged within minutes. The newly formed single black hole then fed on the infalling matter, consuming up to a Sun's worth of material every second and powering jets of matter that blasted outward to create the burst.
Fermi detected the burst just 0.4 seconds after LIGO detected gravitational waves, and from the same general area of the sky. However, the European INTEGRAL gamma-ray satellite did not confirm the signal.
"Even if the Fermi detection is a false alarm, future LIGO events should be monitored for accompanying light irrespective of whether they originate from black hole mergers. Nature can always surprise us," says Loeb.
If more gamma-ray bursts are detected from gravitational wave events, they will offer a promising new method of measuring cosmic distances and the expansion of the universe. By spotting the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst and measuring its redshift, then comparing it to the independent distance measurement from LIGO, astronomers can precisely constrain the cosmological parameters. "Astrophysical black holes are much simpler than other distance indicators, such as supernovae, since they are fully defined just by their mass and spin," says Loeb.
"This is an agenda-setting paper that will likely stimulate vigorous follow-up work, in the crucial period after the initial LIGO discovery, where the challenge is to fathom its full implications. If history is any guide, the 'multi-messenger' approach advocated by Loeb, using both gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation, again promises deeper insight into the physical nature of the remarkable LIGO source," says Volker Bromm of the University of Texas at Austin, commenting independently.
This research has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters and is available online.
More information: Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers Detected by LIGO, arxiv.org/abs/1602.04735
Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal Letters